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Full text of "Poland Russia and Great Britain 1941-1945"

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guerilla bands against the Germans or as the fore-runners of the Com-
munist order to prepaie for the Soviet domination (or for both these aims),,
remained to be seen.
For one or the other of these purposes^ the previously disbanded Polish
Communist Party was revived in 1942 under the name of Polska Parda
Robotnicza (P.P.R.—Polish Workers5 Party;. The weakness of ihis
Party could be judged from the fact that, out of nvo hundred underground
periodicals published during certain months of 1943^ only one emanated
from that Party. The P.P.R., like the non-party *' Union of Polish Patriots *
in Moscow., aimed firstly at convincing the public cf its strong national
character and then intended acting as a normal Part}- v.irhin the frame-
work of the Polish Underground. The organisers of the P.P.R. were
newcomers from the Soviet Union, Comintern agents who, \vitli enormous
funds at their disposal., anxiously sought suitable members among the
population who would co-operate with them. One of their most success-
ful discoveries was the ex-General Lyzwinski-Zymerski? whom iliey cast
for the role of Commander of their Underground Army. It was not
known, either then or at a later date, whether any of the other leaders
had ever been a Polish Communist. At first the P.P.R. published a very
moderate political programme, in comparison with that of the
existing Socialist or Peasant Parties. They referred rather vaguely to
their relationship with the Soviet Union, merely emphasising that' Russia
is the natural Ally of Poland * and furthermore., c that Eastern Poland
should be given to her/ The views of the P.P.R. began to crystaiise at
that precise moment when the Soviets, after Stalingrad passed to an
offensive in the Allied camp, severed relations with the Polish Government
and once again called for an immediate action in the rear of the German
armies. The P.P.R. closely followed these changes in the Soviet policy
and emphasised the Russian successes., comparing them favourably with
the inactivity of the Allies, and discussing the topic of the * second front.'
It was quite natural that, having unmasked its intentions, the P.P.R.
came up against the Polish Underground State, and it was soon exposed
for what it was—an enemy of the State. The further advance of the
P.P.R. took them along the normal path of Communist activity—and they
endeavoured to credit every action of the Underground to their own
account; in this3 Moscow's radio helped them to the utmost extent,
announcing, for instance, that the workers battalions created by the Polish
Socialist Party, ' Gwardia Ludowa * (People's Guard), was under the
control of the P.P.R., as well as the * Peasants' battalions ' formed by the
Peasant Party. The P.P.R. also claimed that it had been recognised by
the other political parties, and proceeded to accuse the Polish Government
of * treason.* It was not long before they began following the lead of the
Soviet Press in an adoration of Stalin. After their glorification of the
Red Army, it was but a short step towards claiming the necessity of